Published On: February 26, 2021

Home Theater 101: Learning the Basics of Home Theater Systems

Published On: February 26, 2021
Last Updated on: July 5, 2021
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Home Theater 101: Learning the Basics of Home Theater Systems

A home theater provides a theater-like experience in your home. But what exactly does that entail? The quick answer is, there's no quick answer.

Home Theater 101: Learning the Basics of Home Theater Systems

  • Dennis Burger is a native Alabamian whose passion for AV began sometime before the age of seven, when he dismantled his parents' brand new 25-inch solid-state Zenith console TV and exclaimed--to the amusement of no one except the delivery guy--that it was missing all of its vacuum tubes. He has since contributed to Home Theater Magazine, Wirecutter, Cineluxe, Electronic House, and more. His specialties include high-end audio, home theater receivers, advanced home automation, and video codecs.

Thumbnail image for 00Elegant Home TheaterThese days, more and more people are eager to recreate the movie theater experience at home. But what exactly does that entail? The quick answer is, there's no quick answer. A home theater can be as simple as a few AV devices in your living room or as complex as a completely renovated basement designed to look like Hollywood's El Capitan Theater. At its core, a home theater system should provide a high-quality video experience and an immersive audio experience that breathe life into your favorite movies, but a number of roads can lead to that destination. This primer offers a general overview of the basic home theater ingredients--from the AV equipment to the seating to the other room elements that can shape your perfect home theater.

JVC-DLA-X750R.jpgPicking the Right Display for Your Home Theater System

When you envision a theater-like video experience, you probably think first of a projection system and a very large screen. That's certainly the display of choice in the prototypical home theater. The two-piece projector/screen combination is generally best suited for a dedicated screening room in which you can completely control the lighting, although many manufacturers now offer high-brightness projectors and ambient-light-rejecting screens that are specifically designed for use in brighter environments. Companies like SIM2, Barco, and Digital Projection International offer projectors and services targeted more at the high-end marketplace, around $20,000 and above. However, projectors aren't reserved solely for the wealthy. This type of display device can actually offer the best screen-size-to-cost ratio. Companies like JVC, Sony, Optoma, and Epson offer high-quality mid-level and entry-level projectors.

As for the projection screen, you can choose between fixed-frame, pull-up/-down, or motorized screens, and most screen manufacturers offer a wide variety of screen materials to suit different projectors and environments. You also need to think about what screen shape you want: Do you want a standard 16:9 screen that's perfect for HDTV and many movies, or a 2.35:1 screen that lets you watch CinemaScope movies with no black bars (this requires a suitably equipped projector and sometimes an add-on lens). Another option is to add a masking system that uses drapes or panels to tailor the screen shape to suit each source. Some of the top names in home theater screens are Stewart Filmscreen, Screen Innovations, dnp, Da-Lite, Vutec, and Elite Screens.

Samsung-UN75J6300.jpgOf course, the two-piece projection system isn't the only option in the display realm. Flat-panel TVs are pretty much the driving force in the home entertainment marketplace; and, thanks to constantly falling prices, you can now get a much bigger screen for your money. Whether you invest top dollar in an 85-inch-plus panel or go with a more modest 65- to 75-inch screen, the flat-panel UHD TV can still make a great foundation for a home theater system, and the benefit is that you can watch it in all kinds of lighting conditions.

Over the years, several different TV technologies have competed for consumer dollars. In the past, most enthusiasts would point you to plasma TVs, like those offered by Panasonic and Pioneer, to get the best home theater performance--that is, the deepest black level and highest contrast ratio to create a rich image in a dark, theater-like environment. Of course, plasma panels are no longer in production. The most popular flat-panel technology these days rely on LCD technology, which was once considered a bright-room-only solution but has made great strides in performance. Technologies like full array local dimming via LEDs instead of CFLs and 120Hz/240Hz refresh rates have helped overcome limitations in black level and motion blur that previously made LCD screens less-than-ideal for movie viewing. All of the big names in LCD--including Samsung, Sony, Vizio, and LG--now incorporate these performance-improving features.

OLED is another flat-panel TV technology that has recently replaced plasma as the videophile's choice. Like a plasma TV, an OLED TV's pixels generate their own light, so the TV is capable of a much deeper black level than an LED/LCD TV. An OLED TV also can be brighter than a plasma, so in many respects it offers the best of both worlds. 

Paradigm-Prestige-95F-thumb.jpgHome Theater Speaker Systems (5.1, 7.1, and Atmos)

The other main element that makes a trip to the movie theater so memorable is the enveloping audio, in which sound elements come at you from all directions. At home, the most basic surround sound speaker system consists of 5.1 channels. The "5" stands for speakers in the front left, center, front right, rear right, and rear left positions, while the ".1" belongs to a subwoofer that helps flesh out the bass for explosions and other low-end effects. Some home theater installers recommend the use of multiple subwoofers to help deliver smoother bass response across a wider listening area. It's also popular to go with a 7.1-channel speaker system, which uses two side-channel and two rear-channel speakers for a more complete surround experience. The latest trend is object-based audio, in which formats like Dolby Atmos and DTS:X add an overhead sound element that provides an even more immersive audio experience.

Speakers come in all shapes and sizes, from freestanding towers to bookshelf models to thin speakers that mount on or in the wall. It's easier than ever before to find speakers that are low in profile but high on performance--through companies like Definitive Technology, Paradigm, GoldenEar Technology, and many more. Going with such small speakers really makes your choice of a subwoofer all the more crucial, since it will have to deliver not only the deepest bass notes, but also the some of the upper bass that such small speakers have trouble reproducing.

If you're building a dedicated theater room, you have more freedom to pick the exact speakers you want, regardless of size or aesthetic, and to position them in the ideal positions to get the best performance. If, on the other hand, you're trying to incorporate your home theater system into an existing living or family room, you might not have as much flexibility to position freestanding speakers in their ideal configuration. Or perhaps you (or your significant other) just don't like the idea of cluttering the room with speakers. In that case, in-wall or in-ceiling speakers may be just what the home theater fan ordered. SpeakerCraft, Sonance, Polk Audio, and Atlantic Technology are just a few companies that offer high-performing in-wall/in-ceiling models at many price points. In-wall and in-ceiling subwoofers are also available.

If you like the idea of surround sound but simply can't find a way to practically integrate a multichannel speaker system into your room, the soundbar has become a popular solution. A soundbar incorporates multiple speaker channels into a single speaker bar that mounts above or below your TV. While some soundbars also come with wireless surround speakers, these devices often instead use pyschoacoustic manipulation to create a sense of surround envelopment, sometimes through digital sound processing and sometimes by bouncing the sound off the walls (and sometimes both). This solution generally doesn't offer the precise effects placement and higher-end performance you can get from separate speakers, but it's a good small-room or apartment solution. It's also a great option for somebody who is unhappy with the quality of their TV speakers and wants an upgrade in sound quality, a common issue with flat-panel TVs. Polk Audio offers some great soundbar solutions, as do Vizio, Yamaha, Zvox, and Definitive Technology.

Onkyo-TXRZ900-thumb.pngHome Theater Electronics

The electronics are the brain of the home theater system. They receive the audio and video signals from your source devices and distribute them out to the speakers and display device. (Some video enthusiasts prefer to only feed audio through their electronics and send video directly from the sources to the display.) Electronics fall into two main categories: AV receivers and separates. An AV receiver puts everything you need in one chassis: One box contains all of the AV inputs to connect your devices, the processors that decode the audio and video signals for output, and the amplification that powers the speakers. Some popular receiver manufacturers are Denon, Marantz, Yamaha, Onkyo, and Pioneer.

As the name suggests, the "separates" approach requires two boxes: a preamp/processor for signal input/processing, and an amplifier (or multiple amplifiers) to power the speakers. The latter approach is more common amongst high-end audio enthusiasts who want more precise control over their system's performance, particularly in the amplification realm. Anthem, McIntosh Labs, Mark Levinson, Classe Audio, and Simaudio are examples of companies that offer high-end separates.

Whether you opt for a receiver or separates, when shopping for electronics, you want to make sure that the product has enough inputs for all of your source devices, with a few extra to accommodate anything new you might buy. HDMI is currently the primary AV connection for most source devices, so you need to make sure the unit has enough HDMI inputs. Also, make sure an AV receiver or amplifier has enough channels to handle the number of non-subwoofer speakers you want to use, be it five, seven, or more. Even if you only plan to use a 5.1-channel speaker system, you might want a 7.1-channel receiver to accommodate future upgrades or perhaps to use the extra amp channels to power a pair of stereo speakers in another room. Finally, if you have any plans to invest in a UHD Blu-ray player or media server, you should buy a receiver or preamp/processor that can decode the best high-resolution audio formats, like Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio. If you want to enjoy object-base audio formats like Dolby Atmos and DTS:X, you need to make sure your AV processor has those decoders, as well.

Oppo_BDP-93_Bluray_player_review_front.gifHome Theater Source Components (Blu-ray and Beyond)

The principal source device in any home theater system will be some type of movie player. The trusy old Blu-ray player is still an excellent choice to serve up a good-looking 1080p image and enveloping surround sound; however, if you want better picture and sound, then an Ultra HD Blu-ray format is the way to go. In addition to offering a full Ultra HD (aka 4K) video signal, UHD Blu-ray players can output high-resolution audio formats like Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio that can make the most of your high-quality surround sound system. (Check out Five Tips to Setting Up Your Blu-ray Player.)

If you have a fairly extensive movie collection, you might consider a video server that can store your movies in digital form, allowing for easy searches, quick start-up, and convenient access to cover art and other info. Kaleidescape is a major name in video servers. Of course, the cable/satellite box is another common source device.

These days, though, the primary video source for most home theater owners is a streaming media player like Roku Ultra, Apple TV 4K, or even Fire TV devices. These allow you to stream video-on-demand over a network connection and are getting better all the time. Finally, gaming consoles are always a popular home theater source, as products like the PlayStation 5 and the Xbox Series X support HD and UHD streaming video.

Home Theater Rooms, Acoustics and Design

Okay, the basic video and audio elements are in place. Now it's time to accessorize. Again, if you're adding a home theater system to an existing room, you may not have the flexibility to incorporate new seating, lighting, or other elements to enhance the cinematic experience; but at the least, you might consider a new equipment rack, TV stand, or TV mount from a manufacturer like Omnimount, Sanus Systems, Bell'O, Premier Mounts, or BDI.

For those who are lucky enough to be creating a dedicated home theater space, the possibilities are endless. Seating will have a huge influence on the overall comfort and appeal of your home theater, so choose wisely. There's certainly no shortage of options, both in traditional theater seating and unique designs from companies like Fortress Seating or PremiereHTS.

What's more theater-like than a lighting system that automatically dims when you press your controller's Watch Movie command. With products from Lutron, Leviton, or Vantage, you can create a dedicated home theater lighting system or include HT lights as part of a whole-house lighting system.

To bring out the very best in your audio system, consider the use of acoustic treatment to help tame reflections and correct any other anomalies that your room design might create. Many professional installers offer advanced acoustic calibration, in which they measure the system's audio characteristics and place acoustic products (diffusers, absorbers, bass traps) exactly where they're needed in the room. Visit the Auralex Acoustics website to see some examples of acoustic treatment products.

Logitech-Harmony-Elite.jpgRemote Control Systems for Home Theater

Once you've assembled all the different home theater elements, you'll probably want to invest in a universal remote to control them all... that is, unless you enjoy having to use five different remotes just to cue up a movie. A well-selected, well-programmed remote can make life easier for every viewer in the house. If you have a modest home theater system, you might get by with an entry-level universal remote that controls only a handful of devices and has limited or no flexibility to tailor buttons to your personal needs. Mid-level remotes from companies like Logitech/Harmony can accommodate more devices and offer more flexibility These products often sport customizable touchscreens and use computer software programs for easy do-it-yourself programming. Just note that Harmony recently ceased production of its universal remotes, so if you're interested in one of these, get them while the getting's good

If we're talking about a high-end home theater that incorporates AV gear, lighting, HVAC control, screen masking, and other automation, then you might need to move into the realm of advanced system control, with a product from Crestron, RTI, or Control4. These advanced system controllers are sold exclusively through custom installation channels and should be programmed by trained installers.

Additional Home Theater Resources

A number of websites exist to provide more information on home theater products and services. Beyond, we recommend the following resources:
Home Theater Equipment

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  • Denisa Cinca
    2022-06-04 03:37:38

    Thanks for this wonderful guide, it really covers a wide range of the needed components for a home theater experience. I prefer projectors because for my home theater experience because no TV can offer that much screen space for the price that a good projector + good screen can. Plus, you can split the screen to display from different source devices, which is awesome for sport evens.

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  • Levi Armstrong
    2021-12-07 02:58:29

    I find it helpful to know that a soundbar if I want a surround sound for my home theater but can't afford or don't have the space for a multichannel speaker system. My husband and I plan to renovate our basement. We plan to turn it into our very own home theatre since we love movie nights as a family, so thanks for the tips!

  • Grace
    2021-09-02 07:34:00

    Nice Article, Also check the Ultra short throw projector with home theater of Elite Projector.

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